LOWNDES COUNTY, GA, USA
A Mandated Spay & Neuter Ordinance for Dogs and Cats
This Document in Support of a Proposed Lowndes County Ordinance is Respectfully Submitted for Review and Consideration
The Burton Fletcher Foundation for Animals, Inc.
This document proposes a Lowndes County Mandated Spay & Neuter Dog and Cat Ordinance, with appropriate exceptions, for review and consideration. We know county officials share our goal of reducing and eventually eliminating the euthanasia of otherwise adoptable dogs and cats. A spay/neuter ordinance would reduce the burden and costs to the county animal shelter and help educate the public about the requirements of responsible pet ownership.
As informal representatives of many local advocates for humane animal welfare, we work for changes that can impact euthanasia rates and increase spay/neuter acceptance. High euthanasia rates are an unacceptable, direct result of the uncontrolled breeding and exponential birth rates of unsterilized homeless, stray, feral, or lost pet dogs and cats.
“We cannot kill our way out of pet overpopulation. Spay and neuter – it’s the only way.”
W. Marvin Mackie, DVM, Internationally
recognized veterinarian and pioneer of
juvenile spay/neuter, safe, high-volume,
surgical pet sterilization: QuickSpay method.
Please review the supporting information we are providing. A Lowndes County Mandated Spay & Neuter Dog and Cat Ordinance (with appropriate exceptions) could address local needs and requirements. This document incorporates ideas, initiatives, and policies that have reduced dog and cat overpopulation in other areas.
In preparation for this document, we have reviewed pertinent U.S. research: dog and cat sterilization historical and current data and trends, regulations, ordinances, and enforcement policies that have succeeded in other states, cities, and counties. This information provides specific actions to develop and standardize the most humane, effective municipal animal control, spay, and neuter policy to reduce intake and euthanasia statistics.
These policies, enacted by other county officials, have helped to control animal overpopulation, decrease the reproduction of unwanted dogs and cats and end euthanasia.
We strongly support and encourage a realistic plan that the county commissioners could readily implement. We believe that a Lowndes County Mandated Spay & Neuter Dog and Cat Ordinance would improve the safety and general welfare of all county residents, visitors, domestic animals, livestock, and wildlife.
Once in effect, these recommendations could immediately result in statistically reducing the number of homeless, stray, feral, and unwanted dogs, cats, kittens, and puppies born from indiscriminate or accidental breeding in the county. It also creates a valuable, new channel of potential positive communication, education, and interaction between Lowndes County officials, the county animal shelter management and staff, local animal welfare professionals and organizations, advocates, and citizens. It could significantly help to improve community relations negatively affected by high shelter euthanasia rates.
Public Health Risks of Stray Animals
Homeless, stray or feral unvaccinated, unsterilized male and female animals pose a significant public health threat, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The CDC warns of the spread of zoonotic (transmissible between humans and animals) diseases, and they track those of most concern. The CDC’s current list of The 8 Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases in the U.S. of Greatest Concern is included in this document.
“Every year, tens of thousands of Americans get sick from zoonotic diseases spread between animals and people,” said Casey Barton Behravesh, MS, DVM, DrPH, DACVPM. Dr. Behravesh is the director of the CDC One Health Office, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.
Unsterilized and unvaccinated homeless, stray, and feral animals are more likely to spread disease or infection because they travel greater distances within a much larger territory than sterilized dogs and cats. Unsterilized female animals kept indoors behave erratically due to hormonal levels of a heat cycle. They may shock and surprise owners by uncharacteristically escaping or running away from home when in heat. Studies have shown that intact males can detect and respond to the scent of females in heat up to a mile or more away.
Pet sterilization eliminates heat cycles in female animals. It drastically reduces or ends the biological and hormonal drive to mate and roam in female and male animals, depending upon the age at the time of surgery. Male unsterilized cats fight for breeding dominance and territory, causing open wounds, resulting in blood and body fluid contamination conducive to the spread of disease.
Additionally, homeless animals living outdoors eat anything to survive: including wildlife, birds, and rodents. Not only does this decimate local wildlife and bird populations, but it also creates the unlimited potential for the contraction and spread of many diseases and parasites they carry.
The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) states that sterilized, vaccinated dogs and cats are less prone to contract or spread deadly, highly contagious zoonotic diseases.
PLEASE SEE Addendum A – The 8 Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases in the U.S. of Greatest Concern to the CDC.
The most common highly contagious canine diseases include rabies, parvovirus (parvo), distemper, influenza, adenovirus, coronavirus, and kennel cough. The most infectious and deadly diseases spread among felines are feline aids (FIV) and feline leukemia (FeLV).
Feral, homeless, stray, or outdoor pet dogs and cats can carry fleas, ticks, mites, and lice year-round. These common ectoparasites (live outside the host) have diseases that infect humans, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF).
Unvaccinated animals roaming at large also may be infested with endoparasites (live inside the host), including tapeworms, roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms. They may also carry fungal infections (ringworm) and bacterial diseases (salmonella) that thrive in the temperate climates of the southern and coastal U.S., which includes Georgia.
It is important to note that homeless animals infected with bacteria or other infectious diseases may appear healthy. Their normal appearance causes unsuspecting adults or children to feel safe holding or petting them. Fleas and worms that infest stray cats can easily and quickly transmit diseases to humans or other animals. Transmission occurs through saliva, licking, or contact with open wounds, cuts, scratches, or bites, according to the research report “Zoonotic Diseases Associated with Free-Roaming Cats” by R.W. Gerhold and D.A. Jessup. It can also spread through contaminated feces.
Other examples of disease spread include three major flea-associated diseases of domestic cats in the United States: cat-scratch disease (CSD), flea-borne typhus, and plague. Cat-scratch disease, one of the most common, causes noticeable symptoms of infection: fever, headaches, and regional lymph node enlargement.
Hookworms are often found in humans, especially children, who frequently put their hands and fingers into their mouths. They spread from infested dogs and cats through saliva, licking, or skin penetration from claw or tooth punctures and scratches. Hookworms can be contracted by accidental ingestion of larvae, walking barefoot on contaminated soil, or contact with infested feces.
Mild cases of hookworms in humans may cause no symptoms and go undetected. Heavy infestation can cause itching, skin rash or lesions, diarrhea, pneumonitis, muscle infection, weight and appetite loss, anemia, visual conditions, or abdominal discomfort.
Shelter Intake Requirements
After the intake of a new animal, to ensure the safety of shelter staff, visitors, and all other animals under care, immediate veterinary evaluation is required to prevent disease or parasite outbreaks. In addition, an extensive list of resources must be available to every intake animal for the duration of the initial shelter holding period that allows for possible owner reclaim.
As a result, each new intake animal significantly contributes to the Lowndes County Animal Shelter’s operational costs regardless of age, weight, size, or length of stay. Giant breeds or larger dogs cost more to feed and require more kennel space.
Dog kennels must be large enough to permit the animal to turn around freely, easily stand, sit and lie in a normal position according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Animal Welfare Act’s size requirements for kenneled dogs and the Association of Shelter Veterinarians.
If unclaimed by an owner, each intake animal continues to incur daily costs, including kennel space, food, veterinarian, medical or surgical care, vaccinations, diagnostic tests, and sterilization if intact. Instead of allowing most or the majority of the cost burden of impounded animals to be paid for by taxpayers, new policies distribute those costs more fairly onto owners who reclaim pets, whose pets are unsterilized, or who permit their pets to roam.
Owners who reclaim pets from the shelter can be required to pay a fair kennel boarding fee, in addition to all or a portion of veterinarian medical fees, before their impounded pet’s release. Owners who reclaim sterilized pets may pay a reduced reclaim fee in addition to the boarding fee, plus any veterinarian medical or surgical charges incurred during their pet’s stay at the shelter.
Another option requires owners of unsterilized, impounded pets who wish to reclaim their pets to sign a Pet Sterilization Agreement. They must leave a deposit before the release of any animal. This would not apply to animals that meet the spay/neuter exemption requirements. The deposit amount greatly varies throughout the U.S. In all cases, the amount should be adequate to ensure that the animal will be sterilized.
Owners who sign the Pet Sterilization Agreement receive paperwork stating the spay/neuter ordinance requirements, fees, penalties, any civil or criminal charges that may apply, and enforcement procedures. They also receive a list of free or low-cost veterinarians, often with a shelter sterilization coupon valued for the partial or complete payment of sterilization.
Veterinarians present the sterilization coupons to the releasing shelter or designated county office for payment. Once pet owners provide the releasing shelter with written proof of pet sterilization within the required time limit by a state-licensed veterinarian, their deposit is refunded.
If proof of sterilization or a legal exemption from a state-licensed veterinarian is not provided as required by the spay/neuter ordinance, the deposit is not refunded. The deposit money funds the county’s low or no-cost sterilization services at the shelter, mobile spay/neuter van, publicized, pre-registered free spay/neuter day or weekend events, or educational community outreach programs.
Enforcement of the spay/neuter ordinance is mandatory to ensure compliance with county dog and cat sterilization policies (other than legal exemptions). Enforcement of every Pet Sterilization Agreement and the spay/neuter ordinance is necessary to positively change community opinion and behavior regarding animal spay/neuter and reverse the dog and cat overpopulation trend.
Pet owners who break a signed Pet Sterilization Agreement incur applicable fines, including the total amount of prosecution, enforcement, or court costs in some municipalities.
Other charges for noncompliance of pet owners, adopters, or animal organizations may include community service at the county shelter or other nonprofit animal welfare shelter, public or private nuisance charges, and a misdemeanor on up to civil or criminal charges. Some states impose sentences of up to thirty days imprisonment in egregious cases. Animal control officers may be assigned for follow-up, issue notification of penalties, or perform enforcement or confiscation as necessary. Some municipalities require the return of the unsterilized animal.
Pet owners and adopters who face non-compliance charges in some counties and cities receive the additional option of voluntary forfeiture of the animal. Voluntary surrender of the animal may be in addition to or instead of any accumulated or pending fines or charges.
Whether the releasing shelter’s initial intake, boarding, veterinarian medical care costs, and any enforcement fees are still required after forfeiture varies by region and individual case circumstances. Fees may be reduced or dropped in some cases, depending upon the owner’s age if a senior citizen, disabled, active military status, income level, or other mitigating factors.
Population factors and the size of a municipality can determine the fee scale and escalating penalties charged for recurrent spay/neuter noncompliance offenses. Another determinant of fees is the severity of the local dog and cat overpopulation statistics and scale and the local shelter intake and euthanasia rates.
Upon conviction of three or more non-sterilization offenses, the releasing agency may temporarily or permanently have its license to operate revoked. Revocation depends upon which state’s spay/neuter regulations apply. Fines for any licensed animal organization found in violation of spay/neuter ordinances tend to be higher per incidence.
Repeated impounding of a roaming pet should result in an escalating fee scale for owners reclaiming that pet. If no owner claims an impounded animal, then the additional costs of a prolonged stay should be accounted for in that animal’s record. If that animal is adopted, the total cost of its stay at the shelter could be recouped partially or entirely as part of the adoption fee.
Each impounded animal that remains in the shelter for any time significantly contributes to the Lowndes County Shelter costs. Besides additional housing and food, other expenses include staff and facility maintenance, operational costs, medication, veterinarian, surgical care and equipment, necessary ancillary service, lost/found efforts, and foster and adoption programs. The actual costs of these resources must be fully accounted for to allow accurate expenses to be charged and recovered by the county.
The endless stream of unwanted, stray animals pouring into the county shelter causes overcrowding, strains resources, and overburdens shelter staff. Despite earnest, creative, and progressive adoption initiatives, uncontrolled dog and cat birth rates remain high, annually costing the county thousands of dollars. Unfortunately, shelter costs also include avoidable euthanasia of otherwise adoptable pets that cannot be indefinitely housed.
Private nonprofit rescue organizations work to assist the county shelter by removing animals to alleviate overcrowding, helping to facilitate more adoptions and lower euthanasia rates, but they are also overwhelmed. If county shelter census statistics drop through the implementation of a spay/neuter ordinance, then private nonprofits would have more available resources to intervene and accept animals. As a result, statistics and outcomes in all shelter categories would improve.
Dog & Cat Sterilization Surgery – Routine and Medically Accepted By Veterinarians
The spay and neuter surgical sterilization procedure for dogs and cats is a routine, medically accepted, safe and affordable surgery done under anesthesia. Recovery time is minimal, and the health benefits are significant.
Spayed animals avoid the risks of uterine infection and ovarian cancer. They have a reduced risk of mammary cancers. Neutered males are less prone to roaming and aggressive behavior, resulting in injuries from biting and scratching. They display fewer undesirable behaviors, including territorial urine spraying. The risk of testicular or prostate cancer is reduced in neutered male animals. Altered cats are less prone to contract deadly diseases spread through bodily fluids, including feline aids (FIV) and feline leukemia (FeLV).
The Foundation encourages Lowndes County officials to consider taking all necessary steps to expeditiously mandate a comprehensive spay/neuter dog and cat ordinance. Once implemented, this ordinance would begin to turn the tide on unacceptably high shelter intake and euthanasia statistics. It would effectively deter the high numbers of unwanted, stray animals that roam streets, become ill or injured, wind up dead on the side of the road or carry and spread diseases.
A Lowndes County Mandated Spay & Neuter Dog and Cat Ordinance could also serve as a progressive model plan for dog and cat reproduction management (stray & owned) for surrounding counties. This domino effect of positive change in regional pet reproduction management for the greater good can spread county by county and throughout the state as it already has elsewhere.
All county animal shelters struggle with the same interrelated, complex issues. Those challenges include stray animal overpopulation, shelter overcrowding, soaring costs, inadequate resources, unacceptable euthanasia rates, spay/neuter acceptance, and community education. The spread of successful spay/neuter county ordinances is a documented nationwide trend in other states seeking more effective, sensible, compassionate oversight of homeless or pet dog and cat reproduction. All spay/neuter ordinances include exemptions appropriate and specific for the area.
It is typical and customary within most county spay/neuter ordinances for clearly-defined exemptions to be provided for owners of certain types of dogs and cats that serve specific purposes: animals registered by licensed, professional dog & cat breeders who meet specific criteria; animals performing defined functions such as police, military or other professionally trained, working roles; animals too young or underweight to be safely sterilized or those of advanced age; any animals deemed medically unfit for surgical sterilization by state-licensed veterinarians who provide the required documentation in support of each exemption, either for a time delay or permanent legal exemption.
Some states, cities, and counties provide spay/neuter exceptions for owners with proof of pet ownership, registration, and vaccination, who reclaim their lost animals from control agencies or other shelters. In these cases, there is usually a schedule of escalating fines or penalties for repeated intake of any animal. In addition, if that animal is repeatedly at-large and not spayed or neutered, a sterilization requirement clause can be automatically triggered by a defined number of intakes.
Pet owners who ignore the mandated spay/neuter dog and cat ordinance receive violations that range from fines to civil or criminal punishment. Penalties directly correlate to the number and type of repeat violations and any contributing factors. In all cases, the list of exceptions to the county spay/neuter mandated ordinance is determined by county officials. It differs according to various factors specific to that county and region, including the particular needs of residents.
Fines collected from spay/neuter dog and cat ordinance violations are often used in multiple coordinated programs to impact community awareness of dog and cat reproduction issues, affect spay/neuter acceptance, spark measurable change and broaden outreach. Local government authorities may choose to establish fines that partially or fully fund free or low-cost sterilization services for owners unable to afford pet sterilization. Some cities and counties coordinate mutually beneficial partnerships with nonprofit animal welfare or rescue organizations to most effectively utilize collective resources in providing spay/neuter services.
The free or low-cost dog and cat sterilization services can be offered at the county shelter by staff veterinarians or through coupons presented to volunteer or participating area veterinarians in their offices throughout the county, improving access. Another method of providing equal access to pet sterilization can be remote field-hospital-style events held in temporary facilities.
Many municipalities use funds to purchase, equip and staff one or more mobile spay/neuter clinics that travel throughout the county on a publicized schedule to reach underserved areas. These mobile units may accept free or low-cost sterilization coupons provided by the county shelter or distributed by participating nonprofit animal welfare organizations and veterinarians.
Fines are also funneled into community awareness and education programs to inform residents of the safety, cost-savings, and benefits of spaying and neutering pets. Educational outreach programs include information about pet sterilization, spay/neuter events, publicity, and where to obtain free or low-cost pet sterilization. Advertising to promote pet sterilization can easily integrate adoption and foster opportunities at the county shelter to help alleviate overcrowding and maximize community awareness and involvement.
Most U.S. animal shelters comply with the generally accepted requirement that unclaimed dogs and cats must be sterilized before adoption or transfer. Sterilization is done at a medically safe age and weight determined by a licensed veterinarian. If sterilization is not immediately possible due to injury, health, age, or weight, in that case, the prospective adopter must pay a deposit. The deposit must be an amount large enough to ensure later sterilization. A promise to sterilize has proven inadequate to ensure compliance with mandated spay/neuter ordinances.
Once proof of sterilization is provided, the deposit is refunded. Any prospective adopter of an unsterilized animal must sign a legally binding Pet Sterilization Agreement, including the complete owner/adopter and the animal’s information.
Pet Sterilization Agreement
- Date of the Pet Sterilization Agreement or adoption.
- Approximate date by which the dog or cat must be sterilized.
- The dog or cat’s age, sex, microchip number, and clear physical description.
- Dollar amount of any deposit remitted to the shelter or agency.
- The specific sterilization conditions will be listed. Documentation from a licensed veterinarian must be provided as proof of sterilization or exemption for a deposit to be refunded.
- The name, address, phone number, and signature of the releasing shelter or agency.
- The name, physical address, email address, phone number, and signature of the prospective adopter. If available, a copy of the adopter’s driver’s license will be made.
- A bold printed statement must be visible on the agreement stating that the animal’s sterilization is required by law.
There are some challenges to the health benefits of pet sterilization regarding the diagnosis of certain cancers and orthopedic conditions in sterilized dogs. However, according to The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), the studies that reported some statistical significance used data from research on male dogs of certain giant breeds. Giant dog breeds are dogs that weigh 90 – 100 pounds or more.
HSUS also states that those conclusions should not be generalized to all dogs or cats. The data came from existing research, and “there is a need for repeatable prospective studies (new research) done by a variety of researchers in various geographic locations and with significant sample sizes to provide stronger data in all aspects of this subject.”
The general spay/neuter recommendations should distinguish between owned dogs and cats, shelter, community (TNR-Trap, Neuter, Release), stray, homeless, and feral animals. Further distinctions would apply to dogs and cats subject to the exemptions of any municipality’s mandated spay/neuter ordinance.
The recommendation for sterilization of unclaimed dogs and cats is six to eight weeks of age and general good health, according to HSUS. Some states, cities, or counties wait until eight weeks of age or until a kitten or puppy reaches a specified weight to ensure safe surgery and recovery. Others require a licensed veterinarian to determine the safe age and weight for any young animal to have sterilization surgery.
Regarding early-age spay and neuter, W. Marvin Mackie, DVM, an internationally recognized juvenile-spay advocate, attested to the safety of the practice, according to The American Humane Society (AHA). He developed the QuickSpay method of safe, high-volume, early-age surgical pet sterilization that has been taught and used worldwide.
“The sterilization of younger animals is easier and cleaner with less surgery time and half the recovery time of an adult. The young patient’s safety is equal to or better than the adult’s upon awakening. These tiny, active creatures seem unaware that surgery has even taken place and are most often eager to eat! The utilization and elimination of anesthetic agents is amazingly tolerant and rapid,” Dr. Mackie said.
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) has endorsed spay/neuter as highly cost-effective for pet owners and far less than the cost of having and caring for a litter of puppies and kittens. They said research supports that sterilization can lead to a pet living a longer, healthier life. They recommend that healthy pups and kittens as young as eight weeks are generally able to be safely sterilized.
The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) has said, “…spay/neuter surgeries do not affect a pet’s intelligence or ability to learn, play, work or hunt.” On the contrary, they cite research proving that sterilization protects from serious health problems later in life.
The policy for cats – not intended for breeding – to be sterilized by five months of age has broad support from veterinary, medical, and professional cat-breeding associations: the American Association of Feline Practitioners, the Association of Shelter Veterinarians, the American Animal Hospital Association, the Cat Fancier’s Association, and the International Cat Association.
For anyone with questions regarding the impact of pet sterilization on lifespan, there are significant benefits and verified answers to concerns. A large-scale study of 70,000 domestic dogs found that the life expectancy of neutered male dogs was 13.8% longer, and that of spayed females was 26.3% longer than the average age of death of intact dogs.
Unsterilized dogs lived an average of 7.9 years versus 9.4 years for sterilized animals, according to researchers who conducted a University of Georgia College of Veterinarian Medicine study: “Reproductive Capability is Associated with Lifespan and Cause of Death in Companion Dogs” by Jessica M. Hoffman, Ph.D., Kate E. Creevy, DVM, MS, DACVIM-SAIM and Daniel E.L. Promislow, Ph.D.
The concerns raised regarding cancer statistics for sterilized pets require much more research. It could be that increased cancer statistics for sterilized animals are not from sterilization but result from longer lifespans when commonly seen cancers are most often diagnosed, according to researchers. They urge that more comprehensive studies are needed to examine when sterilized animals die and why, according to Drs. Hoffman, Creevy, and Promislow.
Thank you for considering this proposal for a Lowndes County Mandated Spay & Neuter Dog and Cat Ordinance. We welcome any comments or responses you may wish to make.
The 8 Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases (transmitted from animals to humans and vice versa) of Greatest Concern in the U.S. to the CDC:
- Brucellosis (initial symptoms are fever, sweats, headache, anorexia, and pain).
- Coronaviruses (acute severe respiratory syndromes).
- Lyme Disease (fever, headache, fatigue, skin rash).
- Plague (fever, chills, nausea).
- Rabies (initial symptoms are flu-like).
- Salmonella (fever, diarrhea, stomach cramps).
- West Nile Virus (high fever, stiff neck, stupor, vision loss, convulsions).
- Zoonotic influenza (fever, cough, severe pneumonia).
Other Zoonotic Diseases Spread by Stray, Unvaccinated Cats or Dogs:
Campylobacter Infections (gastroenteritis).
Capnocytophago (blisters & pus at the wound site, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, confusion, stomach & muscle pain).
- coli pathogenic infections (severe diarrhea & stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting).
Giardia Infection (diarrhea, abdominal symptoms).
Leptospirosis (fever, aches, vomiting).
MRSA/Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus (fever with small red bumps that progress to deep, painful abscesses).
Pasteurellosis (fever, respiratory symptoms: cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, or soft tissue infections).
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF is the most severe tick-borne illness in the U.S.) Symptoms include fever, headache, rash, nausea, vomiting, and stomach & muscle pain.
Sporotrichosis (skin infection with ulcerated lesions from initial skin puncture wound).
Toxoplasmosis (fever, body aches, swollen lymph nodes, headache, fatigue).
Tularemia (six types with various symptoms: high fever, skin ulcers, breathing difficulty, chest pain & cough).
Parasitic Infestations Spread by Cats & Dogs:
Ringworm parasitic fungus
American Humane Association (AHA) – https://www.americanhumane.org
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) – https://aspca.org
American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) – https://www.avma.org
Association of Shelter Veterinarians – https://www.sheltervet.org
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – https://www.cdc.gov
Creevy, Kate E., DVM, MS, DACVIM-SAIM – Currently Chief Veterinary Officer for the NIH-funded Dog Aging Process national, long-term study of pet dogs. Professor of Small Animal Clinical Studies, Texas A&M University School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. University of Georgia Master of Science degree recipient, former professor, and researcher.
Dog Aging Project (DAP), NIH-supported national, long-term research project – https://nia.nih.gov/news/dog-aging-project.
Hoffman, Jessica M., Ph.D. – Dr. Hoffman completed her Genetics Ph.D. and researched the relationship between reproductive capability, lifespan, and cause of death in domestic dogs at the University of Georgia. Currently a Postdoctoral Fellow Department of Biology, the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) – https://www.humanesociety.org
Michigan State University/Animal Legal & Historical Center – https://www.animallaw
Minnesota Board of Animal Health – https://www.bah.state.mn.us
National Institutes for Health (NIH) – https://nih.gov
National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information –
Zoonotic Diseases Associated with Free-Roaming Cats www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22830565.
Promislow, Daniel E. L., Ph.D. – Dr. Promislow, a University of Georgia Genetics Department Professor, is currently Co-Director & Principal Investigator for The Dog Aging Project (DAP). The DAP national research project funded by the NIH is a long-term study of domestic pet dogs.
Purdue Extension Center for Animal Welfare Science – https://www.ANSC.Purdue.Edu/CAWS
QuickSpay method – https://www.quickspay.com
UC Davis Koret Shelter Medicine Program – https://www.sheltermedicine.com
University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine – https://www.vet.uga.edu/research
University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine/Shelter Medicine – https://www.uwsheltermedicine.com
U.S. Department of Agriculture and Animal Welfare Act – https://www.nal.usda.gov/animal-welfare-act